Friday, November 25, 2011



Hi! That's an interjection. :-)

"Interjection" is a big name

for a little word. Interjections

are short exclamations like

Oh! , Um or Ah! They have no

real grammatical value but

we use them quite often,

usually more in speaking than

in writing. When interjections

are inserted into a sentence,

they have no grammatical

connection to the sentence.

An interjection is sometimes

followed by an exclamation

mark (!) when written.

Here are some interjections

with examples:





expressing pleasure

"Ah, that feels good."

expressing realization

"Ah, now I understand."

expressing resignation

"Ah well, it can't be heped."

expressing surprise

"Ah! I've won!"


expressing grief or pity

"Alas, she's dead now."


expressing pity

"Oh dear! Does it hurt?"

expressing surprise

"Dear me! That's a surprise!"


asking for repetition

"It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said

it's hot today."

expressing enquiry

"What do you think of that,


expressing surprise

"Eh! Really?"

inviting agreement

"Let's go, eh?"


expressing hesitation

"Lima is the capital ."

hello, hullo

expressing greeting

"Hello John. How are you


expressing surprise

"Hello! My car's gone!"


calling attention

"Hey! look at that!"

expressing surprise, joy etc

"Hey! What a good idea!"


expressing greeting

"Hi! What's new?"


expressing hesitation, doubt

or disagreement

"Hmm. I'm not so sure."

oh, o

expressing surprise

"Oh! You're here!"

expressing pain

"Oh! I've got a toothache."

expressing pleading

"Oh, please say 'yes'!"


expressing pain

"Ouch! That hurts!"


expressing hesitation

"Uh...I don't know the

answer to that."


expressing agreement

"Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."

um, umm

expressing hesitation

"85 divided by 5 ..17."


expressing surprise

"Well I never!"

introducing a remark

"Well, what did he say?"

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Thursday, November 24, 2011

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Real speech of Vivekananda

Real speech of Vivekananda

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Real speech of NETAJI

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Parts of Speech Table

This is a summary of the 8

parts of speech*. You can

find more detail if you click

on each part of speech.

part of speech

function or "job"

example words

example sentences


action or state

(to) be, have, do, like, work,

sing, can, must is a web

site. I like


thing or person

pen, dog, work, music, town,

London, teacher, John

This is my dog. He lives in my

house . We live in London .


describes a noun

a/an, the, 69, some, good,

big, red, well, interesting

My dog is big . I like big dogs.


describes a verb, adjective or


quickly, silently, well, badly,

very, really

My dog eats quickly. When

he is very hungry, he eats

really quickly.


replaces a noun

I, you, he, she, some

Tara is Indian. She is



links a noun to another word

to, at, after, on, but

We went to school on



joins clauses or sentences or


and, but, when

I like dogs and I like cats. I

like cats and dogs. I like dogs

but I don't like cats.


short exclamation,

sometimes inserted into a


oh!, ouch!, hi!, well

Ouch ! That hurts! Hi! How

are you? Well, I don't know.

* Some grammar sources

categorize English into 9 or 10

parts of speech. At, we use the

traditional categorization of 8

parts of speech. Examples of

other categorizations are:

Verbs may be treated as

two different parts of


Lexical Verbs (work,

like, run )

Auxiliary Verbs ( be,

have, must )

Determiners may be

treated as a separate

part of speech, instead of

being categorized under


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Monday, November 21, 2011

Is it wrong to end a sentence with preposition?

Is It Wrong to End

a Sentence With a


Question: Is It Wrong to End

a Sentence With a



Quite simply, no. A

preposition is not a bad word

to end a sentence with. Even

in your grandparents' day a

preposition was not a bad

word to end a sentence with.

But ask a few of your friends

or colleagues if they

remember any rules of English

grammar, and almost

certainly at least one will say,

with confidence, "Never end a

sentence with a preposition."

Bryan Garner wasn't the first

to call that "rule" a


The spurious rule about

not ending sentences with

prepositions is a remnant

of Latin grammar, in

which a preposition was

the one word that a

writer could not end a

sentence with. But Latin

grammar should never

straightjacket English

grammar. If the

superstition is a "rule" at

all, it is a rule of rhetoric

and not of grammar, the

idea being to end

sentences with strong

words that drive a point

home. That principle is

sound, of course, but not

to the extent of meriting

lockstep adherence or

flouting established


(Garner's Modern

American Usage, Oxford

University Press, 2003)

For over a century even hard-

core prescriptive grammarians

have rejected this old taboo:

Now that should be the end

of it, right? But just try

convincing that friend of


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Sunday, November 20, 2011



Conditionals: Summary

Here is a chart to help you to

visualize the basic English

conditionals. Do not take the

50% and 10% figures too

literally. They are just to help







zero conditional

If you heat ice, it melts.

any time


first conditional

If it rains, I will stay at home.



second conditional

If I won the lottery, I would

buy a car.



third conditional

If I had won the lottery, I

would have bought a car.


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Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Tuesday, November 15, 2011


Gerunds (-ing )

When a verb ends in -ing, it

may be a gerund or a present

participle. It is important to

understand that they are not

the same.

When we use a verb in -ing

form more like a noun , it is

usually a gerund:

Fishing is fun.

When we use a verb in -ing

form more like a verb or an

adjective, it is usually a

present participle:

Anthony is fishing .

I have a boring teacher.

Gerunds are sometimes

called "verbal nouns".

Gerunds as Subject, Object

or Complement

Try to think of gerunds as

verbs in noun form.

Like nouns, gerunds can be

the subject, object or

complement of a sentence:

Smoking costs a lot of


I don't like writing.

My favourite occupation

is reading.

But, like a verb, a gerund can

also have an object itself. In

this case, the whole

expression [gerund + object]

can be the subject, object or

complement of the sentence.

Smoking cigarettes

costs a lot of money.

I don't like writing

letters .

My favourite occupation

is reading detective

stories .

Like nouns, we can use

gerunds with adjectives

(including articles and other


pointless questioning

a settling of debts

the making of Titanic

his drinking of alcohol

But when we use a gerund

with an article, it does not

usually take a direct object:

a settling of debts ( not a

settling debts)

Making "Titanic" was


The making of "Titanic"

was expensive.

Do you see the difference in

these two sentences? In one,

"reading" is a gerund (noun).

In the other "reading" is a

present participle (verb).

My favourite occupation

is reading.

My favourite niece

Gerunds after Prepositions

This is a good rule. It has no


If we want to use a verb

after a preposition, it must

be a gerund. It is impossible

to use an infinitive after a

preposition. So for example,

we say:

I will call you after

arriving at the office.

Please have a drink

before leaving.

I am looking forward to

meeting you.

Do you object to working


Tara always dreams

about going on holiday.

Notice that you could replace

all the above gerunds with

"real" nouns:

I will call you after my

arrival at the office.

Please have a drink

before your departure.

I am looking forward to

our lunch.

Do you object to this job?

Tara always dreams

about holidays.

The above rule has no


So why is "to" followed by

"driving" in 1 and by "drive" in


1. I am used to driving

on the left.

2. I used to drive on the


Gerunds after Certain


We sometimes use one verb

after another verb. Often the

second verb is in the infinitive

form, for example:

I want to eat .

But sometimes the second

verb must be in gerund form,

for example:

I dislike eating .

This depends on the first

verb . Here is a list of verbs

that are usually followed by a

verb in gerund form:

admit, appreciate, avoid,

carry on, consider, defer,

delay, deny, detest,

dislike, endure, enjoy,

escape, excuse, face, feel

like, finish, forgive, give

up, can't help, imagine,

involve, leave off,

mention, mind, miss,

postpone, practise, put

off, report, resent, risk,

can't stand, suggest,


Look at these examples:

She is considering having

a holiday.

Do you feel like going


I can't help falling in love

with you.

I can't stand not seeing


Some verbs can be followed

by the gerund form or the

infinitive form without a big

change in meaning: begin,

continue, hate, intend, like,

love, prefer, propose, start

I like to play tennis.

I like playing tennis.

It started to rain.

It started raining.

Gerunds in Passive Sense

We often use a gerund after

the verbs need, require and

want . In this case, the gerund

has a passive sense.

I have three shirts that

need washing . (need to

be washed)

This letter requires

signing. (needs to be


The house wants

repainting . (needs to be


The expression "something

wants doing" is not normally

used in American English.

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Monday, November 14, 2011


Each, Every

Each and every have similar

but not always identical


Each = every one separately

Every = each, all

Sometimes, each and every

have the same meaning:

Prices go up each year.

Prices go up every year.

But often they are not exactly

the same.

Each expresses the idea of

'one by one'. It emphasizes


Every is half-way between

each and all. It sees things or

people as singular, but in a

group or in general.

Consider the following:

Every artist is sensitive.

Each artist sees things


Every soldier saluted as

the President arrived.

The President gave each

soldier a medal.

Each can be used in front of

the verb:

The soldiers each

received a medal.

Each can be followed by 'of':

The President spoke to

each of the soldiers.

He gave a medal to each

of them.

Every cannot be used for 2

things. For 2 things, each can

be used:

He was carrying a

suitcase in each hand.

Every is used to say how

often something happens:

There is a plane to

Bangkok every day.

The bus leaves every


Verbs with each and every

are always conjugated in the


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Sunday, November 13, 2011


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Saturday, November 12, 2011


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Rmsa Training-II

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modal meanings:uu
Modal auxiliary verbs can be used to convey a wide range of meanings. The table below illustrates some of the commonest, but it is by no means exhaustive.
verbs used
can, could
I need interpreters in my surgery who can speak Punjabi,2 Urdu, and Gujarati.
can, could, might, ought to, should, will, would
A suitable satellite in high orbit should do it nicely.
can, could, may, might
Candidates may enter for both examinations, if desired.
Requests and invitations:
can, could, may, might, will, would
Will you come with me?
Offers, promises, threats:
can, could, shall, should
The Company will keep a copy of all material delivered to the Publisher.
could, may, might, should, will
It could be dangerous for anybody who knows.
must, ought to, should
No matter what else they do within the group, every volunteer must do at least one shift on the phones every fortnight.
could, might, must, ought to, should
‘Perhaps you could try waders,’ suggested Preston.
Habitual actions:
might, will, would
Every afternoon she would wake from her afternoon sleep and cry pitifully, sometimes for as long as two hours.

Rmsa Training

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Thursday, November 10, 2011


Telephone Language
Here are some typical
phrases that you can use in a
telephone conversation.
Answering the phone
Hello? (informal)
Thank you for calling
Boyz Autobody. Jody
speaking. How can I help
Doctor's office.
Introducing yourself
Hey George. It's Lisa
calling. (informal)
Hello, this is Julie
Madison calling.
Hi, it's Gerry from the
dentist's office here.
This is she.*
*The person
answering says this if
the caller does not
recognize their voice.
Asking to speak with
Is Fred in? (informal)
Is Jackson there, please?
Can I talk to your sister?
May I speak with Mr.
Green, please?
Would the doctor be in/
Connecting someone
Just a sec. I'll get him.
Hang on one second.
Please hold and I'll put
you through to his office.
One moment please.
All of our operators are
busy at this time. Please
hold for the next
available person.
Making special requests
Could you please repeat
Would you mind spelling
that for me?
Could you speak up a
little please?
Can you speak a little
slower please. My
English isn't very strong.
Can you call me back? I
think we have a bad
Can you please hold for
a minute? I have another
Taking a message for
Sammy's not in. Who's
this? (informal)
I'm sorry, Lisa's not here
at the moment. Can I ask
who's calling?
I'm afraid he's stepped
out. Would you like to
leave a message?
He's on lunch right
now.Who's calling
He's busy right now. Can
you call again later?
I'll let him know you
I'll make sure she gets
the message.
Leaving a message with
Yes, can you tell him his
wife called, please.
No, that's okay, I'll call
back later.
Yes, it's James from
CompInc. here. When do
you expect her back in
the office?
Thanks, could you ask
him to call Brian when he
gets in?
Do you have a pen
handy. I don't think he
has my number.
Thanks. My number is
222-3456, extension 12.
Confirming information
Okay, I've got it all
Let me repeat that just
to make sure.
Did you say 555 Charles
You said your name was
John, right?
I'll make sure he gets the
Listening to an answering
Hello. You've reached
222-6789. Please leave a
detailed message after
the beep.Thank you.
Hi, this is Elizabeth. I'm
sorry I'm not available
to take your call at this
time. Leave me a
message and I'll get back
to you as soon as I can.
Thank you for calling Dr.
Mindin's office. Our
hours are 9am- 5pm,
Monday-Friday. Please
call back during these
hours, or leave a
message after the tone.
If this is an emergency
please call the hospital
at 333-7896.
Leaving a message on an
answering machine
Hey Mikako. It's Yuka.
Call me! (informal)
Hello, this is Ricardo
calling for Luke. Could
you please return my call
as soon as possible. My
number is 334-5689.
Thank you.
Hello Maxwell. This is
Marina from the
doctor's office calling. I
just wanted to let you
know that you're due for
a check-up this month.
Please give us a ring/
buzz whenever it's
Finishing a conversation
Well, I guess I better get
going. Talk to you soon.
Thanks for calling. Bye
for now.
I have to let you go now.
I have another call
coming through. I better
I'm afraid that's my
other line.
I'll talk to you again
soon. Bye.
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Monday, November 7, 2011


Wh-words are what , when ,
where , who , which, why and
how .
We use clauses with a wh-
word :
In wh-questions (see
Questions and Negatives):
What are you doing?
Who ate all the pies?
Why did you do that?
after verbs of thinking :
know - understand -
suppose - remember -
forget - wonder
I know where you live.
She couldn’t remember who
he was.
John wondered what was
going to happen next.
NOTE : We also use clauses
with if
I wonder if we’ll see Peter.
She couldn’t remember if she
had posted the letter.
after verbs of saying:
ask - say - admit - argue -
reply - agree - mention -
explain - suggest
I asked what she wanted.
He tried to explain how the
accident had happened.
She wouldn’ t admit what she
had done.
Did he say when he would
tell and some other verbs of
saying must always have a
direct object (see clauses,
sentences and phrases):
tell - remind
We tried to tell them what
they should do.
She reminded me where I
had left the car.
after some verbs of
thinking and saying we use
wh-words and the to-
infinitive :
We didn’t know what to do .
We will ask when to set off.
Nobody told me what to do .
Can anyone suggest where to
go for lunch?
NOTE : We use the to-
infinitive :
-- When the subject of the to-
infinitive is the same as the
subject of the main verb:
He didn’t know what to do
>>> He didn’t know what he
should do
We will ask when to set off
>>> We will ask when we
should set off
-- When the subject of the to-
infinitive is the same as the
person spoken to :
Nobody told me what to do .
>>> Nobody told me what I
should do.
Can anyone suggest where to
go for lunch? >>> Can anyone
suggest [to us ] where we
should go for lunch.
after some nouns to say
more about the noun :
Is there any reason why I
should stay ?.
Do you remember the day
when we went to Edinburgh .
That was the town where I
grew up.
We often use a wh-clause
after is :
I missed my bus. That’s why I
was late.
This is where I live.
That ’s what I thought.
Paris – that ’s where we are
going for our holidays.
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Saturday, November 5, 2011


We use the to -infinitive:
• to express purpose (to
answer "Why...?"):
He bought some flowers to
give to his wife.
He locked the door to keep
everyone out.
We sometimes say in order
to or in order not to :
We set off early in order to
avoid the traffic.
They spoke quietly in order
not to wake the children
… or we can say so as to or
so as not to :
We set off early so as to
avoid the traffic.
They spoke quietly so as not
to wake the children.
• after certain verbs (see
verbs followed by infinitive),
particularly verbs of thinking
and feeling:
choose, decide, expect,
forget, hate, hope, intend,
learn, like,
love, mean, plan, prefer,
remember, want, would
like, would love
… and verbs of saying :
agree, promise, refuse
They decided to start a
business together.
Remember to turn the lights
Some verbs are followed by a
direct object and the
infinitive( see verbs followed
by infinitive
advise, ask, encourage,
invite, order, persuade,
remind, tell, warn,
expect, intend, would
prefer, want, would like
She reminded me to turn the
lights out.
He encouraged his friends to
vote for him.
• after certain adjectives .
Sometimes the to -infinitive
gives a reason for the
We were happy to come to
the end of our journey
= We were happy because we
had come to the end of our
John was surprised to see
= He was surprised because
he saw me
Other adjectives with the to -
infinitive are:
Unfortunately I was unable
to work for over a week.
I am really tired. I’m ready to
go to bed.
We often use the to -infinitive
with these adjectives after it
to give opinions :
It’s easy to play the piano,
but it’s very difficult to play
He spoke so quickly it was
impossible to understand
We use the preposition for to
show who these adjectives
refer to:
It was difficult for us to
hear what she was saying.
It is easy for you to criticise
other people.
We use the preposition of
with other adjectives:
It’s kind of you to help.
It would be silly of him to
spend all his money.
• As a postmodifier (see
noun phrases ) after abstract
nouns like:
I have no desire to be rich .
They gave him an opportunity
to escape.
She was annoyed by her
failure to answer the
question correctly .
• We often use a to -infinitive
as a postmodifier after an
indefinite pronoun (See
indefinite pronouns ):
When I am travelling I always
take something to read .
I was all alone. I had no one
to talk to .
There is hardly anything to
do in most of these small
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Grammar movies

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Friday, November 4, 2011


Gamil Wahba from Egypt
Sometimes we say: Open the
door, will you? Sometimes
we say: Open the door,
won't you? Are both correct?
Roger Woodham replies:
more questions
question tags with the
Yes, both are correct and
there is very little difference
in meaning between the two.
There is perhaps a slight
suggestion that you might be
expecting the answer to be
no , if you use the ...won 't
you? question tag.
By adding the tag to the
imperative, open the door ,
you are softening the
instruction and turning it into
a request . Without it, it
would sound very much like a
command, so the tag has a
similar effect to the addition
of please.
…will you/won't you?
The following examples are
all variations on the basic …
will you/won't you? theme
and all show roughly the
same degree of politeness.
But note that the context of
use is now the operating
theatre and here the …won't
you? tag would be
inappropriate as the surgeon
would never expect the
answer to be no:
Hand me the scalpel,
Hand me the scalpel, will
you please?
Hand me the scalpel,
would you ?
Hand me the scalpel,
could you please ?
Could you hand me the
You can, of course, use …
would you? and …could you?
with your example, Gamil, in
addition to …will you? and …
won't you?, but note that
with the imperative we
cannot use …wouldn't you?
or …couldn't you?.
Note in the following
example, the first suggestion
is much more tentative and
less confident than the
Come back to my place
for a coffee, won't you? ~
No, I'm sorry, I can't. I've
got such an early start
tomorrow that I have to
go to bed now.
Let's go back to my place
for coffee! ~ What a nice
idea. A coffee and a
brandy would round off
that delicious meal nicely.
negative with affirmative
and affirmative with
Leaving aside imperative
structures, the normal rule
that operates with tag
questions is that you add a
negative tag to a positive
statement and a positive
tag to a negative
statement :
You would go to see Phil
in America if I gave you
the money, wouldn't you ?
You couldn't help me sort
out these overtime
schedules, could you?
The normal expectation when
you add a negative tag to a
positive statement is that
the answer will be yes .
Similarly, when you add a
positive tag to a negative
statement , you expect the
answer to be no :
They're such a lively
bunch, aren't they? ~
Yes, they are . They've
always got lots of energy.
You don't remember
meeting my uncle, do
you? ~ No, I'm sorry. I
don't .
You haven't fed the
goldfish, have you? ~ No,
I haven't . You do it.
Excessive speed was the
cause of the accident,
don't you agree? ~ Yes, I
do .
However, expectations are
not always fulfilled:
You haven't fed the
goldfish, have you? ~ Well,
actually, I have. I fed them
half an hour ago.
Excessive speed was the
cause of the accident,
don't you agree? ~ Well, I
'm not absolutely sure that
I agree with you. He was
driving fast, but not faster
than the speed limit
same way question tags
Here we are making a
positive statement to make
a guess and then adding the
tag to ask if our assumption
is correct. Study the following:
This is the final match of
the season, is it ? ~ Yes,
that's right.
So you can run a mile in
four minutes, can you ?
She's been training to be
an anaesthetist, has she?
So she's going to marry
him, is she?
He was unfaithful
straightaway, was he ?
So you think she'll sue for
divorce, do you?
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