Monday, October 31, 2011


Passive Voice
The passive voice is less
usual than the active voice.
The active voice is the
"normal" voice. But
sometimes we need the
passive voice. In this lesson
we look at how to construct
the passive voice, when to
use it and how to conjugate
Construction of the Passive
The structure of the passive
voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) +
main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in
its past participle form.
Look at these examples:
auxiliary verb (to be)
main verb (past participle)
by everyone.
100 people
by this company.
in euro.
in dollars.
in yen?
Use of the Passive Voice
We use the passive when:
we want to make the
active object more
we do not know the
active subject
give importance to active
object (President Kennedy)
President Kennedy
was killed
by Lee Harvey Oswald.
active subject unknown
My wallet
has been stolen.
Note that we always use by
to introduce the passive
object (Fish are eaten by
Look at this sentence:
He was killed with a gun.
Normally we use by to
introduce the passive object.
But the gun is not the active
subject. The gun did not kill
him. He was killed by
somebody with a gun. In the
active voice, it would be:
Somebody killed him with a
gun. The gun is the
instrument. Somebody is the
"agent" or "doer".
Conjugation for the
Passive Voice
We can form the passive in
any tense. In fact,
conjugation of verbs in the
passive tense is rather easy,
as the main verb is always in
past participle form and the
auxiliary verb is always be .
To form the required tense,
we conjugate the auxiliary
verb. So, for example:
present simple: It is
present continuous: It is
being made
present perfect: It has
been made
Here are some examples
with most of the possible
to be washed
It is washed.
It was washed.
It will be washed.
It would be washed.
It is being washed.
It was being washed.
It will be being washed.
It would be being washed.
perfect simple
It has been washed.
It had been washed.
It will have been washed.
It would have been washed.
perfect continuous
It has been being washed.
It had been being washed.
It will have been being
It would have been being
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Thursday, October 27, 2011

Use of 'TO'

To V or Not To V
Click for Audio
The word "to" is often
confusing in English. It can be
used as part of a modal
expression, infinitive or as a
Note the usage of "to" in
the following sentences.
To V
I used to live in Utah.
I am supposed to go.
I hope to see you.
To V ing
I am used to living in Utah.
I am opposed to going.
I look forward to seeing you.
Modal expressions are
always followed by the
base form of the verb.
ought to
have to
have got to
used to
be to
be able to
be supposed to
be going to
Similar expressions are
followed by infinitives (to +
need to V
want to V
hope to V
happen to V
mean to V
tend to V
care to V
wish to V
would like to V
be allowed to V
be inclined to V
be reluctant to V
be willing to V
be happy to V
be afraid to V
be required to V
be delighted to V
be compelled to V
Many prepositional
combinations using "to"
are followed by gerunds.
look forward to V ing
resort to V ing
submit to V ing
confess to V ing
give in to V ing
admit to V ing
with regards to V ing
be accustomed to V ing
be addicted to V ing
be opposed to V ing
be limited to V ing
be dedicated to V ing
be commited to V ing
be used to V ing.

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Saturday, October 22, 2011


Cats are the most popular
pets among Americans. So it
is not surprising that there are
many expressions about cats.
Some cats like to catch small
birds, like canaries. If
someone looks very proud or
satisfied with himself, we say
he looks like the cat that
ate the canary .
Sometimes, a cat likes to play
with a small animal it catches.
So if you play cat and
mouse with someone,you
change between different
kinds of behavior when
dealing with another person.
For example, a child might
offer something sweet to her
little brother and then take it
away when he reaches for it.
A cat will often catch a small
animal and present it to its
owner. The saying that looks
like something the cat
dragged in describes
something in bad condition.
Two old and funny
expressions describe
something that is the best or
finest. Americans might say
that something is the cat's
meow and the cat's
Children might call a child who
is easily frightened a fraidy
cat or a scaredy cat . A
copycat is someone who acts
just like someone else or
copies another person's work.
A fat cat is a person with a
lot of money.
You may have known that cats
spend most of their time
sleeping. Sometimes people
sleep for a short time during
the day. This is called a cat
If you tell about something
that was supposed to be a
secret, we say you let the cat
out of the bag. If you are not
able to speak or answer a
question someone might ask
if the cat has got your
Have you ever watched
children in a classroom when
their teacher leaves for a few
minutes? When the cat's
away, the mice will play
means people sometimes
misbehave when there is no
You may have heard this
expression: curiosity killed
the cat.This means being too
concerned about things that
are not your business might
cause problems.
If your home is very small,
you might say there is not
enough room to swing a
cat. But you probably should
not try this at home!
If you ever had cats as pets,
you know it is difficult to train
them or to get them to do
something. Cats are not like
sheep or cows that can be
moved in a group. So we say
a difficult or impossible job is
like herding cats.
We leave you with a song
from the musical play, "Cats."
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Wednesday, October 19, 2011


Panagrams are sentences
or phrases that use every
letter in the alphebet at
least once. Check for

Brick quiz whangs jumpy veldt
Quick wafting zephyrs vex
bold Jim.
The five boxing wizards jump
B, C, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, O, P,
Q, U, V, W, X, Y, and Z are
Jackdaws love my sphinx of
black quartz.
The five boxing wizards
jumped quickly.
Five big quacking zephyrs jolt
my wax bed.
Hick Jed wins quiz for extra
blimp voyage.
Sympathizing would fix
Quaker objectives.
Mix Zapf with Veljovic and get
quirky Beziers.
Brawny gods just flocked up
to quiz and vex him.
Jim just quit and packed extra
bags for Liz Owen.
Turgid saxophones blew over
Mick's jazzy quaff.
Dumpy kibitzer jingles as
exchequer overflows.
Puzzled women bequeath
jerks very exotic gifts.
Playing jazz vibe chords
quickly excites my wife.
A boy, Max, felt quick during
his hazy weaving jumps.
A large fawn jumped quickly
over white zinc boxes.
Viewing quizzical abstracts
mixed up hefty jocks.
Five wine experts jokingly
quizzed sample Chablis.
William Jex quickly caught five
dozen Republicans.
The vixen jumped quickly on
her foe barking with zeal.
Harry, jogging quickly, axed
zen monks with beef vapor.
Five or six big jet planes
zoomed quickly by the tower.
Six big devils from Japan
quickly forgot how to waltz.
Big July earthquakes confound
zany experimental vow.
Exquisite farm wench gives
body jolt to prize stinker.
My grandfather picks up
quartz and valuable onyx
Six crazy kings vowed to
abolish my quite pitiful jousts.
Jack amazed a few girls by
dropping the antique onyx
We have just quoted on nine
dozen boxes of gray lamp
Jay visited back home and
gazed upon a brown fox and
May Jo equal the fine record
by solving six puzzles a week?
Fred specialized in the job of
making very quaint wax toys.
Freight to me sixty dozen
quart jars and twelve black
Jeb quickly drove a few extra
miles on the glazed
Grumpy wizards make toxic
brew for the evil Queen and
Verily the dark ex-Jew quit
Zionism, preferring the
The job of waxing linoleum
frequently peeves chintzy
West quickly gave Bert
handsome prizes for six juicy
Just keep examining every low
bid quoted for zinc etchings.
A quick movement of the
enemy will jeopardize six
All questions asked by five
watch experts amazed the
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Today we explain some
expressions about birds. For
example, if something is for
the birds , it is worthless or
not very interesting. Someone
who eats like a bird eats
very little. And a birds-eye
view is a general look at an
area from above.
Did you know that if you tell a
young person about the birds
and the bees you are
explaining about sex and
birth? Have you ever observed
that birds of a feather flock
together? In other words,
people who are similar
become friends or do things
together. Here is some good
advice: a bird in the hand is
worth two in the bush . This
means you should not risk
losing something you have by
trying to get more of
something you do not have.
Sometimes I can do two
things by performing only one
action. This is called killing
two birds with one stone .
But I would never really kill
any birds. I love all kinds of
animals. This is a real feather
in my cap. It is something to
be proud of.
Most of the people I work
with are early birds. They
believe that the early bird
catches the worm. They think
that a person who gets up
early in the morning for work
has the best chance of
success. Everyone in my
office works hard, but some
people have had their wings
clipped . Their jobs have been
limited. This is because the
office is organized by pecking
order . People with more
years and experience are
given more responsibility.
Some bird expressions are
about crows, chickens and
ducks. For example, when I
am driving, I always travel as
the crow flies. I go the most
direct way. Anyone who eats
crow has to admit a mistake
or defeat.
Now let's talk about my
sister. She is not very young.
She is no spring chicken. She
will work any job for chicken
feed -- a small amount of
money. She is easily
frightened. For example, she
is too chicken-livered to
walk down a dark street alone
at night. Often she will
chicken out – she will not go
out alone at night.
My sister was an ugly
duckling. She looked strange
when she was a child, but she
grew up to be a beautiful
woman. Sometimes she
thinks too much about having
something in the future
before she really has it. She
counts her chickens before
they are hatched.
Sometimes her chickens
come home to roost. That
means her actions or words
cause trouble for her.
However, my sister does not
worry about what people say
about her. Criticism falls off
her like water off a duck's
back .
Politicians are sometimes
considered lame ducks after
losing an election. They have
little time left in office and
not much power. Congress
holds a lame duck session
after an election. Important
laws are not passed during
this period.
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Friday, October 14, 2011

Odyssey_people_places(for 7th E/M)

ople and Places of the OdysseyPeopleAegyptius- One of the chieftains of Ithaca who speaks at the Assembly in Book II.Aeolus- A mortal whom Zeus has appointed keeper of the winds.Agamemnon- The king of Mycenae and leader of the Achaean expedition to Troy.Alcinous- The king of the Phaeacians, husband of Arete and father of Nausicaa, he is a generous, kind, and good-humored ruler and father.Antinous- The leader of the suitors and the first slain by Odysseus. He is a cruel, greedy, and hypocritical villain, always attempting to justify his evil behavior by distorting the motives or acts of others.Anticleia- The mother of Odysseus.She encounters him in Hades while he is there.Arete- The queen of the Phaeacians, wife of Alcinous and mother of Nausicaan.Argus- The old hunting dog of Odysseus who recognizes his master and dies.Athene- Daughter of Zeus, goddessof wisdom and patroness of the artsand crafts, also known as Pallas. Odysseus is her favorite and protege.Calypso- The sea nymph who keepsOdysseus captive for nine years andwho, in hope of making him her husband, offers him immortality.Circe- The enchantress who transforms the crew of Odysseus into swine and who, when she finds that she cannot conquer Odysseus, takes him as a lover and helps him with advice and supplies on his voyage home.Demodocus- A blind bard entertains at the banquets in the palace of Alcinous.Elepnor- A young seaman in the crew of Odysseus who dies in an accident on Circe island and whose spirit reproaches Odysseus in Hades.Eumaeus- The chief swineherd of Odysseus, who remains faithful to his master during his long absence and who plays an active part in assisting Odysseus to regain his kingdom.Eupeithes- The father of Antinous. He manifests the same rashness and disloyalty that is exhibited by his son when he leads a band of Ithacans to attack Odysseus but is quick to recognize his error and apologize.Eurycleia- The faithful and devoted old nurse of Odysseus, recognizes him by the scar on his leg.Eurylochus- One of Odysseus' officers; he is an unimaginative andsober person, who wisely avoids entering Circe's palace in Book X, but who also abets the sailors whenthey slaughter the cattle of Helios.Eurymachus- The second most important suitor; he is as evil as Antinous, but far more soft and cowardly.Helen- The wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. She was the cause of the Trojan War.Hermes- Son of Zeus, the ambassador of the gods, conductor of the dead souls to Hades, and patron of travelers, merchants, andthieves.Hyperion- The god of the sun. Also known as Helios. It is his cattle which is eaten by Odysseus' crew.Irus- A cowardly bully who is a beggar on Ithaca and a favorite of many of the suitors.Laertes- The old father of Odysseus, who lives in isolation from the demands of public life, ona small farm in the back hills of Ithaca. He remains alert and agile, despite his age.Leucothoie- A sea nymph who helps Odysseus read the island of the Phaeacians during the storm in Book V.Melantho- One of the serving maids in the palace of Odysseus; she is a nasty and impudent young girl and is disloyal to her master, having become the mistress of Eurymachus.Melanthius- The chief goatherd of Odysseus. In his master's absence he has ignored his duty and has ingratiated himself with the suitors by catering to their whims.Menelaus- King of Sparta, husband of Helen, and brother of Agamemnon. Like Odysseus, he toohas a series of misadventures on his return home from Troy.Mentor- A faithful friend of Odysseus who was left behind on Ithaca as Telemachus' tutor; he is wise, sober, and loyal.Nausicaa- The daughter of Alcinous and Arete. She is a charming young maiden, in her adolescence.Nestor- King of Pylos, father of Peisistratus. A very wise and garrulous old man, one of the few survivors of the Trojan War.Odysseus- King of Ithaca, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, son of Laertes. He is the first of theGreek epic heroes to be renowned for his brain as well as his muscle.Peisistratus- The gallant young son of Nestor. He is the companion of Telemachus on his journey through the Peloponnesus.Penelope- The wife of Odysseus. She is serious and industrious, a perfect wife and mother in many aspects.Philoetius- The chief cowherd of Odysseus; he is brave and loyal and,despite his age, stands besides his master during the battle with the suitors.Polyphemus- A one-eyed Cyclops who held Odysseus and his men captive in his cave until he was made drunk and blinded by Odysseus.Poseidon- Younger brother of Zeus, god of the sea and earthquakes, father of Polyphemus.Because Odysseus is a sailor and must travel home by ship, Poseidonis able to do him much harm. The god bears a grudge against him because of his rough treatment of Polyphemus.Scylla- A sea monster with six heads whom Odysseus and his crewmust pass during their voyage.Sirens- Two beautiful maidens who dwell in a flowery meadow on an island somewhere between that of Circe and of Scylla. They tempt passing mariners to their deaths by their tantalizing songs.Telemachus- The son of Odysseus and Penelope. He is just entering manhood and is very self-conscious about his duty, and his father's reputation as a hero, which he feelshe must live up to.Tiresias- The most famous of all Greek seers. The legend was that incompensation for his blindness the gods had given him his awesome visionary powers. His spirit is consulted by Odysseus in Hades.Zeus- The supreme god and king ofOlympus. He is officially neutral in human affairs; his duty is to carry out the will of Destiny, but he is often sympathetic towards humans.q
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Every people has its own way
of saying things, its own
special expressions. Some of
these expressions are easy to
understand. The words create
a picture in your mind.
"As easy as falling off a log" is
one such expression. It
describes a job that does not
take much effort.
If you ever tried to walk on a
fallen tree log, you
understand what the
expression means. It is easier
to fall off the log than to stay
on it.
The expression is often used
today. For example, you might
hear a student say to her
friend that her spelling test
was "as easy as falling off a
There are several other
expressions that mean the
same thing. And their meaning
is as easy to understand as
"falling off a log." One is,
"easy as pie". Nothing is
easier than eating a piece of
sweet, juicy pie. Unless it is a
"piece of cake."
"Piece of cake" is another
expression that means
something is extremely easy
to do. A friend might tell you
that his new job was a "piece
of cake."
Another expression is "as
easy as shooting fish in a
It is hard to imagine why
anyone would want to shoot
fish in a barrel. But, clearly,
fish in a barrel would be
much easier to shoot than
fish in a stream. In fact, it
would be as easy as "falling
off a log".
Sometimes, things that come
to us easily, also leave us just
as easily. In fact, there is an
expression – "easy come,
easy go" – that recognizes
this. You may win a lot of
money in a lottery, then
spend it all in a few days.
Easy come, easy go.
When life itself is easy, when
you have no cares or
problems, you are on "Easy
Street." Everyone wants to
live on that imaginary street.
Another "easy" expression is
to "go easy on a person". It
means to treat a person
kindly or gently, especially in a
situation where you might be
expected to be angry with
him. A wife might urge her
husband to "go easy on" their
son, because the boy did not
mean to wreck the car.
If it is necessary to borrow
some money to fix the car,
you should look for a friend
who is an "easy touch". An
"easy touch" or a "soft touch"
is someone who is kind and
helpful. He would easily agree
to lend you the money.
And one last expression, one
that means do not worry or
work too hard. Try to keep
away from difficult situations.
"Take it easy" until we meet
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Wednesday, October 12, 2011


Every language has its own
special words and
expressions. And a story can
be told about each of them.
Hot is a simple, easily-
understood word. So are
most of the expressions
made with the word hot. But
not always, as we shall see.
The words hot potato, for
example, give you no idea at
all to the meaning of the
expression, hot potato.
The potato is a popular
vegetable in the United
States. Many people like
baked potatoes, cooked in an
oven or fire. Imagine trying to
carry a hot, baked potato in
your hand. It would be
difficult, even painful, to do
Now we are getting close to
the meaning of hot potato.
Some publicly-disputed issues
are highly emotional. The
issues must be treated
carefully, or they will be
difficult and painful if an
elected official has to deal
with them. As difficult and
painful as holding a hot
One such hot potato is taxes.
Calling for higher taxes can
mean defeat for a politician.
And yet, if taxes are not
raised, some very popular
government programs could
be cut. And that also can
make a politician very
unpopular. So the questions
must be dealt with
carefully...the same way you
would handle any other hot
Another expression is not so
hot. If you ask someone how
she feels, she may answer:
"not so hot." What she means
is she does not feel well.
Not so hot also is a way of
saying that you do not really
like something. You may tell a
friend that the new play you
saw last night is not so hot.
That means you did not
consider it a success.
A hot shot is a person --
often a young person -- who
thinks he can do anything. At
least he wants to try. He is
very sure he can succeed. But
often he fails. The expression
was born in the military
forces. A hot shot was a
soldier who fired without
aiming carefully.
Hot is a word that is often
used to talk about anger.
A person who becomes angry
easily is called a hothead. An
angry person's neck often
becomes red. We say he is
hot under the collar . You
could say that your friend is
no hothead. But he got hot
under the collar when
someone took his radio.
In nineteen sixty-three, hot
line appeared as a new
The hot line was a direct
communications link between
the leaders of the Soviet
Union and the United States.
The hot line had an important
purpose: to prevent
accidental war between the
two competitors during the
period known as the Cold
War. The American president
and the Soviet leader were
able to communicate directly
and immediately on the hot
line. This helped prevent any
conflict during an international
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Monday, October 10, 2011


Cold weather has a great
effect on how our minds and
our bodies work. Maybe that
is why there are so many
expressions that use the word
For centuries, the body's
blood has been linked closely
with the emotions. People
who show no human
emotions or feelings, for
example, are said to be cold-
blooded . Cold-blooded
people act in cruel ways. They
may do brutal things to
others, and not by accident.
For example, a newspaper
says the police are searching
for a cold-blooded killer. The
killer murdered someone, not
in self-defense, or because he
was reacting to anger or fear.
He seemed to kill for no
reason, and with no emotion,
as if taking someone's life
meant nothing.
Cold can affect other parts of
the body. The feet, for
example. Heavy socks can
warm your feet, if your feet
are really cold. But there is an
expression -- to get cold feet
-- that has nothing to do with
cold or your feet.
The expression means being
afraid to do something you
had decided to do. For
example, you agree to be
president of an organization.
But then you learn that all the
other officers have resigned.
All the work of the
organization will be your
responsibility. You are likely
to get cold feet about being
president when you
understand the situation.
Cold can also affect your
You give someone the cold
shoulder when you refuse to
speak to them. You treat
them in a distant, cold way.
The expression probably
comes from the physical act
of turning your back toward
someone, instead of speaking
to him face-to-face. You may
give a cold shoulder to a
friend who has not kept a
promise he made to you. Or,
to someone who has lied
about you to others.
A cold fish is not a fish. It is a
person. But it is a person who
is unfriendly, unemotional and
shows no love or warmth. A
cold fish does not offer much
of himself to anyone.
Someone who is a cold fish
could be cold-hearted . A
cold-hearted person is
someone who has no
sympathy. Several popular
songs in recent years were
about cold-hearted men or
cold-hearted women who,
without feeling, broke the
hearts of their lovers.
Out in the cold is an
expression often heard. It
means not getting something
that everybody else got. A
person might say that
everybody but him got a pay
raise, that he was left out in
the cold. And it is not a
pleasant place to be.
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Sunday, October 9, 2011


Generate ideas
"See" your ideas on paper
Clustering/Mind mapping
Discussing with a partner
"Hear" your ideas and others'
responses to them
Select ideas
Choose ideas that you want
to focus on; eliminate
irrelevant ideas; add new
Organize ideas
Outline. Arrange main ideas
and supporting ideas such as
details, examples , evidence ,
illustrations .
Compose the essay
Make several drafts, each
one more focused and clear
than previous one.
"Rethinking" usually produces
better results than merely
copying the rough draft, but it
is more challenging.
Revise, revise, revise !
Overall essay
Paragraph by paragraph
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Writing is a means to 1)
discover your ideas, then 2)
express them in a way your
reader(s) will understand.
To improve your writing skills,
we suggest that you consider
five things:
1. Who are you? (the Writer )
Understand yourself and your
role in the writing situation.
What position are you writing
from? (expert or inquirer,
seeker or sharer of
Are you writing as yourself or
representing someone else (a
company, for example)?
2. Why are you writing? (your
Purpose )
What do you wish to
accomplish with your writing?
What are you communication
Are you getting or giving
information, or both?
What do you want the reader
to understand or do?
3. What is your message?
(your Content )
What ideas do you wish to
Find out what they are (by
Focus in one or two main
ideas and recognize the sub-
ideas that support them.
4. Whom are you writing to?
(the Reader )
Who will read what you
What is your relationship to
How will you establish a
connection with them?
What is their position?
5. How will you write? (your
Method and Language)
How will you organize your
What language will you use
(structure and vocabulary) to
express your ideas?
What format is best (short
note, list of points, e-mail,
formal letter, researched
paper, etc.)
What standards will you use
to insure that your message
is clear and respectful to your
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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

TO V OR NOT TO (The word 'to' is often confusing)

The word "to" is often
confusing in English. It can be
used as part of a modal
expression, infinitive or as a
Note the usage of "to " in
the following sentences.
To V
I used to live in Utah.
I am supposed to go.
I hope to see you.
To V ing
I am used to living in Utah.
I am opposed to going.
I look forward to seeing you.
Modal expressions are
always followed by the
base form of the verb.
ought to
have to
have got to
used to
be to
be able to
be supposed to
be going to
Similar expressions are
followed by infinitives (to +
need to V
want to V
hope to V
happen to V
mean to V
tend to V
care to V
wish to V
would like to V
be allowed to V
be inclined to V
be reluctant to V
be willing to V
be happy to V
be afraid to V
be required to V
be delighted to V
be compelled to V
Many prepositional
combinations using "to"
are followed by gerunds.
look forward to V ing
resort to V ing
submit to V ing
confess to V ing
give in to V ing
admit to V ing
with regards to V ing
be accustomed to V ing
be addicted to V ing
be opposed to V ing
be limited to V ing
be dedicated to V ing
be commited to V ing
be used to V ing
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Monday, October 3, 2011


Take 3-4 large pictures/
photos and stick them on
card. Pictures can come
from Sunday
supplements, travel
brochures, calendars,
magazine adverts etc.
Pictures specific to
students’ interests will
motivate them e.g . film
stills, cartoons, news
stories, famous paintings,
famous people.
Draw puzzle shapes on
the back of each picture
(4 -5 shapes) and cut out
the picture pieces.
Give each student in the
class a jigsaw piece. They
must not show their
piece to anyone.
Students then mingle and
question each other
about what is on their
puzzle piece to try and
find people with pieces
of the same jigsaw.
The object of the game is
to find all pieces and put
together the jigsaw. The
first complete picture
puzzle wins.
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Sunday, October 2, 2011


Some verbs can be used to express
an action, others to express status or
condition. These verbs often come in
pairs and are usually mutually
exclusive . One is used to indicate a
single occurrence, while the other
indicates a situation which is or has
been in existence for a long period of
time. See examples below.
I met John last September .
I got married in June.
Status /condition .
I have known him since last
September .
( Not : I have met John since
September .)
I have been married for one month.
( Not : I have gotten married for one
month .)
Some common semantic verb pairs
are as follows:
( When did you . . . ?)
Hear about
Find out
Put on
Get dressed
Get married
Get engaged
Get divorced
Go to sleep / Fall asleep
Fall in love
Wake up /Get up
Catch fire
Status /condition
( How long have you . . " past
participle " . . . ?)
be (here )
be (a graduate / out of school )
know / be aware of
know / be aware of
be dressed
be married
be engaged
be divorced
be asleep
be in love
be up/ awake
be on fire
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